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3.1 & 3.2 Vocabulary Review

Teacher: Mrs. Snodgrass
a structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a thread-like linear
the total genetic material of an organism
the addition by mutation of one or more nucleotides to a chromosome.
chromosome pairs with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci.
globular proteins associated to chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.
a peptide, such as a small protein, containing many molecules of amino acids, typically between 10 and 100.
human genetic syndrome resulting from having an extra chromosome 21
the order of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule (2 words, no blank)
an international scientific research project to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, and to identify and map all of the genes of humans (3 words, no spaces)
technique that relies on the emission of radioactive particles from within the subject to produce an image
a method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type.
a change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism that results in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type
an autosomal recessive anaemia due to substitution of a single amino acid (valine for glutamic acid) characterized by red blood cell becoming sickle-shaped and non-functional. (2 words, no space)
the DNA of a prokaryote in the circular chromosome.
a hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism
Cells that have nuclei containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set from each parent
The DNA in prokaryotic cells that is not associated with proteins
region of the chromosome that becomes attached to the spindle fibres during cell division.
the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual.
the position of a gene on the chromosome
an essential amino acid occurring in proteins that replaces glutamic acid in cases of sickle cell anaemia
a non-essential amino acid, occurring in proteins, that is replaced by valine in cases of sickle cell anaemia (2 words, no space)
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis. (2 words, no space)
a type of chromosomal aberration in which a segment of the chromosome is removed or lost.
mutation with the exchange of a single nucleotide for another in the DNA sequence of a gene.
a genetic mutation, caused by a deletion or insertion in a DNA sequence, that shifts the way the sequence is read (2 words, no space)
shows the chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length
the process of copying of DNA into messenger RNA in gene expression.
an open access database, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations.
treating (specimens for the microscope) with a reagent or dye that makes certain structures visible without affecting others.
one of the possible alternatives of a gene, occupying a specific position on a chromosome, that controls the same trait
Cells that have one chromosome of each pair (have one full set of the chromosomes that are found in its species)