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Parts of the Cell - Structure and Function

Short, cell surface projections; each cilium composed of nine pairs of microtubules surrounding a central pair
Dense particles consisting of two subunits, each composed of ribosomal RNA and protein; free or attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum The sites of protein synthesis
Secretion or ejection of substances from a cell; the substance is enclosed in a membranous vesicle, which fuses with the plasma membrane and ruptures, releasing the substance to the exterior. Secretion of neurotransmitters, hormones, mucus, ejection of cell waste.
Like cilium, but longer; only example in humans is the sperm tail Propels the cell
Rodlike, double-membrane structures; inner membrane folded into projections called cristae Site of ATP synthesis; powerhouse of the cell Site of aerobic cellular respiration
Membrane system enclosing a cavity, the cisterna, and coiling through the cytoplasm; externally studded with ribosomes Sugar groups are attached to proteins within the cisternae; proteins are bound in vesicles for transport to the Golgi apparatus and other sites; external face synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol
Membrane made of a double layer of lipids (phospholipids, cholesterol, etc.) within which proteins are embedded; proteins may extend entirely through the lipid bilayer or protrude on only one face; externally facing proteins and some lipids have attached sugar groups Serves as an external cell barrier; acts in transport of substances into or out of the cell; maintains a resting potential that is essential for functioning of excitable cells (i.e. neurons + muscle cells); externally facing proteins act as receptors (for hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.) and in cell-to-cell recognition
Largest organelle: surrounded by the nuclear envelope, contains fluid nucleoplasm, nucleoli and chromatin. Controls centre of the cell; responsible for transmitting genetic information and providing the instructions for protein synthesis
"Cell eating": A large external particle (proteins, bacteria, dead cell debris) is surrounded by a seizing foot and becomes enclosed in a plasma membrane sac. In the human body occurs primarily in protective phagocytes cells
Granular, threadlike material composed of DNA and histone proteins. DNA constitutes the genes
Membranous sacs containing acid hydrolases Sites of intracellular digestion
Protein fibers; composition varies The stable cytoskeleton elements; resist mechanical forces acting on the cell
Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes The enzymes detoxify a number of toxic substances; the most important enzyme, catalase, breaks down hydrogen peroxide
Movement of a substance through a membrane against a concentration (or electrochemical) gradient; required a membrane carrier protein. Movement of amino acids and most ions across the membrane.
Cylindrical structures made of tubulin proteins Support the cell and give it shape; involved in intracellular and cellular movements; form centrioles
Cellular region between the nuclear and plasma membranes; consists of fluid cytosol, containing dissolved solutes, inclusions (stored nutrients, secretory products, pigment granules) and organelles, the metabolic machinery of the cytoplasm
Fine filaments of the contractile protein actin Involved in muscle contraction and other types of intracellular movement; help form the cell's cytoskeleton
Simple diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrace. Movement of water into and out of cells via membrane pores
Paired cylindrical bodies, each composed of nine triplets of microtubules
"Cell drinking": Plasma membrane sinks beneath an external fluid droplet containing small solutes; membrane edges fuse, forming a fluid filled vesicle. Occurs in most cells; important for taking in solutes by absorptive cells of the kidney and intestine
A stack of smooth membranous sacs and associated vesicles close to the nucleus Packages, modifies, and segregates proteins for secretion (release) from the cell, inclusion in lysosomes, and incorporation into the plasma membrane
Double-membrane structure; pierced by the pores; outer membrane continuous with the cytoplasmic ER. Separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and regulates passage of substances to and from the nucleus. Nucleoli - Dense spherical bodies; composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins. Site of ribosome subunit manufacture
Movement of water and solutes through a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher hydrostatic pressure to a region of lower hydrostatic pressure, that is, along a pressure gradient. Movement of water, nutrients and gases through a capillary wall, formation of kidney filtrate