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geology vocab

the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past
a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water
a length or span of time
a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface
the science of determining the relative order of past events
lithosphere of the earth is divided into a small number of these, which float on and travel independently
a span of time marked by character, events, changes on earth, etc
a particular period of time marked by distinctive features, events, etc.
an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy. In its plainest form, it states that in undeformed stratigraphic sequences, the oldest strata will be at the bottom of the sequence.
An indefinitely long period of time
an extended break in a body of rock
a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere
the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, then transport it away to another location.
the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.
the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from 541 to 485.4 million years ago (mya) and was succeeded by the Ordovician. Its subdivisions, and indeed its base, are somewhat in flux.
the science that deals with the earth's physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it.
the largest span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to find materials such as igneous or gas, in which look impurities were selectively incorporated when they formed.
the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles
the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form". The original rock (protolith) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical and/or chemical change
Magma is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets.
Lava is the molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption.
the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties
system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time
the process of determining an age on a specified time scale in archaeology and geology.
the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species
a rise of land to a higher elevation
an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics. It consists of various mountains linked in chains, typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine.
fossils used to define and identify geologic periods
Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava
large-scale motion of 7 large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, over the last 100's of millions of years.