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Chapter 11 vocabulary

DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules.
an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
a colorless crystalline compound with basic properties, forming uric acid on oxidation.
is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA).
, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule.
a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes.
a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
a virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it.
the form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome.
a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule containing information coding for a protein or peptide sequence.
an agent, such as radiation or a chemical substance, that causes genetic mutation.
is an enzyme that is responsible for making rna from a dna template
is a type of enzyme that is responsible for forming new copies of DNA, in the form of nucleic acid molecules.
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
Translation is a step in protein biosynthesis wherein the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
A nitrogenous base is simply a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base.
RNA consisting of folded molecules that transport amino acids from the cytoplasm of a cell to a ribosome.
a molecular component of a ribosome, the cell's essential protein factory.
a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes.