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Earth's Structure vocab

Muts have the following characteristics: 1. occur in the natural world; 2. must be inorganic - cannot come from from materials that were once a part of a living thing; 3. a solid - definite shape and volume; 4. particles that make it up line up in a repeating pattern; 5. definite chemical composition or range of compositions
Used to identify minerals - some but not all minerals have their own characteristic color
Color of a mineral in powdered form. found by rubbing it on a white tile, or ______ plate
A rock that forms from other rocks because of intense heat, pressure or chemical processes
Naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite crystal structure and chemical composition
A area of deep cracks that forms between two techtonic plates that are pulling away from eachother
Solid geometric form that results from a repeating pattern of atoms and molecules; grow atom by atom to form a particular structure - these structures are grouped into six categories based on the number and angle of the crystal faces
Minerals that do not contain silicate. these minerals can contain carbon, oxygen, fluorine,iron, sulfur
A rock that forms from compressed or cemented layers of sediment
The process by which material is laid down or deposited
Minerals that contain a combination of silicon and oxygen, two of the most common elements on earth
The rising regions of Earth's crust to higher elevations
Strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
Thin solid outermost layer of Earth above the mantle
Sinking of regions of the earth's crust to higher elevations
Supercontinent that formed 300 million years ago and that began to break up 200 million years ago
Process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Tendency of a mineral to split along it's surface 0 breaks easily along flat surface forming smooth, flat surfaces
Theory that the continents "drifted" on the surface of the Earth. This theory was replaced by the theory of plate techtonics
Ranks 10 minerals from softest to hardest; measure of mineral's hardness
Substance not made up of living things or remains of living things; like clam shells
Solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
The way a mineral reflects light from its surface
Theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, moves and change shape
Solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
Central part of the earth below the mantle
Rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
Layer of rock between the Earth's crust and core