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IB Biology Vocab - 3.1

the DNA of a prokaryote in the circular chromosome.
the process of determining the locus for a particular biological trait.
the exchange of a single nucleotide for another in the DNA sequence of a gene.
the position of a gene on the chromosome (loci plural).
an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations.
an international scientific research project to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, and to identify and map all of the genes of the human genome.
the process of copying of DNA into messenger RNA in gene expression.
an essential amino acid occurring in proteins that replaces glutamic acid in cases of sickle cell anaemia.
a genetic mutation, caused by a deletion or insertion in a DNA sequence, that shifts the way the sequence is read.
a type of chromosomal aberration in which a segment of the chromosome is removed or lost.
the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red colour and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues.
an autosomal recessive anaemia due to substitution of a single amino acid (valine for glutamic acid) characterized by red blood cell becoming sickle-shaped and non-functional.
the exchange of a single nucleotide for another in the DNA sequence of a gene.
the total genetic material of an organism. contained in DNA (entire base sequence of each DNA molecule)
the order of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule.
one of the possible alternatives of a gene, occupying a specific position on a chromosome, that controls the same trait.
a hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism.
a change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism that results in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type these are random changes most are either neutral or harmful mutations in body cells are eliminated by cell death mutations in gametes can be passed to offspring base substitution is the most common
a non-essential amino acid, occurring in proteins, that is replaced by valine in cases of sickle cell anaemia.
a structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a thread-like linear strand of DNA with the genes in a linear order (the human species has 23 pairs).
the addition by mutation of one or more nucleotides to a chromosome.