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Plant Form and Function

Primary growth originates at ______ meristems in the tips of shoots and roots
Epidermal cells on young roots often send out very thin extensions called root ________
Main organs of photosynthesis in most flowering plant species. Function in gas exchange, and they are the major site of evaporative water loss
In a chloroplast this special tissue carries out photosynthesis
This dermal tissue secretes the cuticle, provides protection and controls gas exchange and water loss
In eudicots and gymnosperms, the thickening originates in _________ meristems, which are cylindrical layers of meristem that run length wise through shoots and roots
Is the informal term for periderm
The vascular ___________ produces secondary vascular tissue inside older stems and roots
The _________ cambium is produced by the lateral meristem.
Cohesion-________ theory is an explanation of how transpiration creates tension that pulls a cohesive column of water upward through xylem
The movement of sugars and other organic molecules through phloem
Using plants to take up and concentrate or degrade environmental contaminants
Main stem of the plant, and it also serves as the plant's primary storage tissue
Develop from a basal plate at the base of the bulb
This tissue makes up most of soft internal parts of a plant, and include cells specialized for photosynthesis and for storage
Embryos have two cotyledons, flower parts in fours or fives or multiples of fours or fives, leaf veins usually forming a netlike array, pollen grains with three pores or furrows, vascular bundles in a ring in ground tissue of stem
Embryos have a single cotyledon, flower parts in threes or multiples of threes, leaf veins usually running parallel to one another, pollen grains with one pore or furrow, vascular bundles all through ground tissue of stem
Can form of stems, leaves, or other structures, in which case they are called ___________ roots
_______ flow theory is an explanation of how a difference in turgor between sieve elements in source and sink regions pushes sugar-rich fluid through a sieve tube
This vascular tissue consists of sugar-conducting tubes and their supporting cells
The tip of an actively lengthening shoot is called a _________ bud
This vascular tissue provides structural support and is the water-conducting tubes of the plant
This tissue covers and protects the plant's exposed surfaces
This simple tissue is a pliable structural support. Supports rapidly growing plant parts such as young stems and leaf stalks
Decomposing organic material such as fallen leaves and feces found in soil
Thick-walled xylem cells during summer is called __________ wood
Region of the plant where sugars are being produced or released from storage
A region where they are being broken down or stored for later use
Region of still functional secondary xylem
Short section of underground stem encased by overlapping layers of thickened, modified leaves
Flattened, photosynthetic stems specialized to store water
Evaporation of water from above ground plant parts (exerts negative pressure on water, pulls up)
Short, thickened underground stem
Branch from the main stem of the plant and grow horizontally on the ground or just under it
Number of seed leaves
One of a pair of cells that define a stroma
Stems, leaves, and reproductive organs such as flowers that mostly grow above ground
Primary, lateral, hairs, tip and cap that mostly grow below ground
This dermal tissue forms a protective cover on older stems and roots
Regions that can give rise to new shoots or roots
Regions of undifferentiated (stem) cells that divide continually during the growing season.
Swellings that contain mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Roots and shoots lengthen during _______ growth
Thin-walled xylem cells during spring is ______ wood