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Cell Structure

Long, hollow cylinders that consist of subunits of the protein tubulin that form a dynamic scaffolding for many cellular processes, involved in movement
Long, slender cellular structure used for movement, act like propellers
Junctions that consist of adhesion proteins, and they make a tissue quite strong by connecting cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells, and cytoskeletal elements to basement membrane
Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane, common to all cell types
Type of ECM secreted by cells at a body surface, helps to prevent water loss in plants
An organelle with two membranes that holds the cell's DNA in a eukaryotic cell
Extracellular ________ is a complex mixture of molecules that varies by cell type, but often includes polysaccharides and fibrous proteins
Organelle that produces ATP by aerobic respiration
ER with ribosomes on the surface that make polypeptides
Reinforcing cytoskeleton element that functions in cell movement; a fiber of actin subunits, connects plasma membrane bound proteins to other proteins inside the cell
Community of microorganisms living with a shared mass of slime
A ________ microscope uses visible light illuminates a sample yielding photographs
This membrane encloses a cell and separates it from the external environment
Open channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjoining cells
A __________ microscope uses lasers to illuminate light-emitting tracers absorbed by certain molecules in the cell yielding photographs
This membrane protein that triggers a change in cell activity in response to a stimulus such as binding a certain substance, usually a hydrophilic signaling molecule
Enzyme filled that breaks down fatty acids, amino acids, poisons such as alcohol, and hydrogen peroxide
Stable cytoskeletal element that structurally supports cells and tissues; forming a framework, support the nuclear envelope, and regulate processes inside the nucleus such as DNA replication are called _________ filaments
A protein filament that projects from the surface of some prokaryotic cells
Short, moveable structures that project from the plasma membrane of some eukaryotic cells
This protein speeds up reactions at membranes
A ___________ electron microscope directs a beam of electrons back and forth across the surface of a specimen that has been coated with a thin layer of gold or other metal, the irradiated metal emits electrons and x-rays which are converted into an image
Small, membrane-enclosed sacs, formed by budding from other organelles or when a patch of plasma membrane sinks into the cytoplasm
Junctions that have closable channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjoining animal cells
Body/apparatus that modifies polypeptides and lipids, then packages the finished products into vesicles
Organelles specialized for photosynthesis these photosynthetic cells are found in plants and many protists
A _____________ electron microscope directs electrons through a thin specimen, and the specimen's internal details appear as shadows in the resulting image
The lipid bilayer consists mainly of __________, organized in such a way because the hydrophilic head interacts with water molecules and the hydrophobic tails do not interact with water
Type of energy-using protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cell's parts or the whole cell
Organelles upon which polypepties are assembled
General term for a structure that carries out a special metabolic function inside a cell
Brings about movement of eukaryotic flagella and cilia
A fluid _________ model of a cell membrane is a two-dimensional fluid of mixed composition
A system of protein filaments found between the nucleus and plasma membrane
Enzyme filled that breaks down cellular debris and wastes
The cell _____ is rigid, permeable to water, surrounds the plasma membrane and protects the cell and supports its shape
This protein moves specific ions or polar molecules across a membrane
Membrane that is not actually a cell membrane because it does not consist of lipids, instead it is a sheet of fibrous material that structurally supports and organizes tissues
ER that makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates and fatty acids