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Chp. 7 Sub-Saharan Africa _______________________name (please print)

Teacher: Professor Thomas
A plateau ringed on three sides by mountains and a narrow coastal lowland strip; the Kalahari and Namib Deserts; savanna and open woodland; low population density; and rich deposits of diamonds, gold, chrome, copper, uranium, and coal; in South Africa apartheid is gone; yet the region faces health such as HIV, agricultural, leadership issues. South Africa is the wealthiest and perhaps the most stable country in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, yet a wide gap between rich and poor.
For the tragic tale of child soldiers in Africa, see the Vignette. Name the country.
As a result of colonialism and apartheid, sub-Saharan countries are left with this type of economy, divided by economic disparities into two groups, one prosperous and the other near or below the poverty level: one rich and industrialized and the other poor and reliant on low-wage labor and small-scale informal enterprises. Even though the labor of black was essential to South Africa's prosperity, by the 1940s, 84 percent of black South Africans lived at a bare subsistence level. By 2009, fifty percent still lived below the poverty line compared to just 7 percent of whites. Only 22 percent of black South Africans had finished high school, compared to 70 percent white.
Usually done by subsistence farmers who raise diverse array of crops and a few animals as livestock.
Small-scale development in rural areas that is focused on developing local skills, creating local jobs, producing products or services for local consumption, and maintaining local control so that participants retain a sense of ownership over the process.
The primary contributor of CO2 emissions and potential climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa is through deforestation. Trees absorb CO2 as they photosynthesize, thus removing carbon from the air and storing it as biomass, a process known as _____. When trees are burned or when they decompose after they die, they release the stored CO2 into the atmosphere. African countries lead the world in the rate of deforestation, the percentage of total forest area lost. Six of the world's top leading countries are in sub-Saharan Africa (Burundi, Togo, Nigeria, Benin, Uganda, and Ghana). The world's top two countries are Brazil and Indonesia.
In the procedure, which is usually performed without anesthesia, a young girl's entire clitoris and parts of her labia are removed. In the most extreme cases (called infibulation), her vulva is stitched nearly shut. This mutilation far exceeds that of male circumcision, eliminating any possibility of sexual stimulation for the female and making urination and menstruation difficult. Intercourse is painful and childbirth is particularly devastating because the flesh scarred by mutilation is inelastic. In 2006, a medical study showed that women who had undergone this were 50 percent more likely to die during childbirth, and their babies were at similarly high risk. The practice also leaves women exceptionally susceptible to infection, especially HIV infection.
Occupies the Horn of Africa, reaches along the southern shore of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and includes countries of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and newly independent South Sudan; coastal countries of Kenya and Tanzania; highland countries of Uganda Rwanda, and islands of Madagascar, Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. Dry coasts, moist interior uplands with a long history of farming; 80 percent make a living from farming. Industry is only beginning to develop; and ancient port cities with a thousand-year history of trade across the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean; famous national parks in Kenya and Tanzania offer protection to many wild animals.
A system of laws that required everyone except whites to carry identification papers at all times, to live in racially segregated areas, and to use segregated transportation and other infrastructure. Eighty percent of the land was reserved for the use of white South Africans, who at that time made up just 10 percent of the population. Black, Asian, and "coloured" people were assigned to ethnically based "homelands." South Africa was an apartheid state from 1948 until 1994.
A traditional African belief in spirits, including those of the deceased, are thought to exist everywhere--in trees, streams, hills, and art, for example. In return for respect (expressed through ritual), these spirits offer protection from sickness, accidents, and the ill will of others. African religions tend to be fluid and adaptable to changing circumstances. For example, in West Africa, Osun, the god of water, traditionally credited with healing powers, is now also invoked for those suffering economic woes.
The triangular peninsula that juts out from north-eastern Africa below the Red Sea. Winds blowing north along the east coast of Africa keep ITCZ-related rainfall away from this area. As a consequence, this area is one of the driest parts of the continent.
The deliberate destruction of an ethnic, racial, religious, or political group. Throughout the last decade of the twentieth century, refugees from Somalia, Ethiopia, Uganda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Rwanda, Mozambique, Niger, and Mali poured back and forth across borders and were displaced within their own countries, often trying to escape this. With only 11 percent of the world's population, this region contains about 19 percent of the world's refugees, and if counting displacement within one's own country, then the percentage is 28 percent of the world's refugees.
Recent studies show that Africa has more than was previously believed with up to a 100 times larger quantity stored in aquifers as long ago as 5,000 years during wetter climate conditions. This does not mean that Africa suddenly has lots of water. The largest reservoirs appear to be in lightly populated areas such as North Africa and Botswana. The most heavily populated country, Nigeria, has only a relatively small supply, and those aquifers are in many cases no longer being recharged by nature.
Providing food and other products just for one's family. Usually done on farms of from 2 to 10 acres..
The practice of having multiple wives. This is more common in sub-Saharan Africa (where it has ancient pre-Muslim, pre-Christian roots) than in Muslim North Africa. Many of the female politicians who have come to power in the last decade are now addressing these issues.
A grassy transition zone between desert and wetter climes to the south that present major physical obstacles to human habitation (though trading caravans have traversed the Sahara and Sahel for thousands of years).
Small patches of forest are cleared and the detritus is either burned or left to decay. Then a wide variety of plants are cultivated in the clearings for 2 or 3 years and then abandoned and left to regrow. After a few decades, the soil naturally replenishes its organic matter and nutrients and is ready to be cultivated again. However, if fallow periods are reduced, as is happening in many rural areas of high population density, the soil can become degraded. This process helps maintain soil quality in tropical wet or wet/dry climate and has been practiced by subsistence farmers for a long time.
The deliberate intensification of divisions and conflicts by potential rulers; in the case of sub-Saharan Africa, by European colonial powers
More than a thousand languages, falling into more than a hundred language groups, are spoken in Africa; Bantu is the largest such groups. Most Africans speak their native tongue and this language _____a language of trade, for example, Hausa, Arabic, and Swahili are taking over because they better suit people's needs or have become politically dominant. Former colonial languages such as English, French, and Portuguese (all classified as Indo-European languages are also widely used in commerce, politics, education, and on the Internet.
Raw materials that are traded (usually to other countries) for processing or manufacturing into more valuable goods; in Sub-Saharan Africa, includes cotton, cacao beans, coffee, timber, palm oil, unrefined oil, gas, precious stones, and metals. The profits from such are usually too low to lift poor countries out of poverty. Because many other poor countries are producing the same products, competition between them on the world market often drives down profits. Prices are subject to wide fluctuation that create economic instability. What is the general term used for such products?
Practiced by millions of Africans, primarily in savannas, on desert margins, or in the mixture of grass and shrubs called open bush. This is also called herding. Herders live off the milk, meat, and hides of their animals. They typically circulate seasonally through wide areas, taking their animals to available pasturelands and trading with settled farmers for grain, vegetables, and other necessities. Many traditional herding areas in Africa are now undergoing desertification, the process by which arid conditions spread to areas that were previously moist.
A series of horizontal physical zones, grading from dry in the north to moist in the south. The north-south division also applies to economic activities key to the environment--herding in the north, farming in the south, and, to some extent, to religions and cultures--Muslim in the north; Christian in the south. Most of these cultural and physical features do not have distinct boundaries, but rather zones of transition and exchange. Small remnants of tropical rain forests exist along the Atlantic coasts of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria, although most of this once-great coastal forest has fallen victim to logging, intensifying settlement and agriculture. To the north, this moist environment grades into drier woodland mixed with savanna. Farther north still, as the environment becomes drier, the trees thin out and the savanna dominates. Only where annual cycles create wetlands, as in the Niger River basin, is moisture sufficient for fishing and cultivation, and grazing. North, the savanna blends into drier Sahel, and north of this becomes desert, part of the Sahara. Coastal crops include coffee, cacao, yams, palm oil, corn, bananas, sugarcane. Father north is peanuts, cotton and cattle. Into the Sahel, there is the threat of sleeping sickness spread by the tsetse fly.