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Rocks and Minerals

Hot fluid rock material found below of within the earths crust
Rock material formed from rock, sand, or dirt that has deposited by water or air (ex. limestone, sandstone, shale, clay, and coal)
The process of eroding and transporting earth materials by way of wind, water, or snow
The process of breaking down earth materials altering color, texture, and composition.
Color mark remaining after a mineral has scratched surface
Used to determine the resistance of minerals to be scratched. ( 1 (Talc) - 10 (Diamond)
The manner in which minerals reflect light
The easiest and useless property of identifying minerals. Impurities often change this property
Also known as compaction
Type of igneous rock consisting of large crystals
The geological process in which sediments are transported and laid down in layers which build up overtime
The tendency of a mineral to break along a smooth surface
Valuable mineral stone used for jewelry
Type of mineral used in pencils
Hot molten rock which erupts from the earths crust by way of volcano of geyser
Caused when the earths crust shifts and underground rocks are brought to the surface
Inorganic material that undergone transformation by heat, pressure, or other naturally occurring phenomena (ex. slate, schist, quartz, and marble)
Type of mountain having a vent through which lava, rock fragments, and gases erupt from the earths crust
Occurs when rock is submerged beneath another rock and becomes magma. This phenomena is caused by the movement of plate tectonics
Solidified from lava or magma (ex. granite, pumice, obsidian, basalt)
Type of igneous rock found primarily in the ocean floor
Natural substance consisting of minerals formed by geological processed
Process where sediment begins to stick together forming a solid substance
Type of igneous rock formed from magma within the earths crust cooling slowly forming large crystals
Process involving weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, uplift, metamorphosis, melting and cooling.
Type of igneous rock formed from magma outside the earths crust cooling quickly forming small crystals
Inorganic substance formed from naturally occurring geological processes
Materials formed from rock, sand, or dirt that has deposited by water or air
Property determining the resistance of minerals to be scratched
The tendency of a mineral to break along a curved surface, often jagged