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weathering and soil

the process by which the surface of the earth is worn away by the action of water, glaciers, winds, waves, etc.
any of the various weathering processes that cause exposed rock to undergo chemical decomposition, changing the chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock.
a reddish ferruginous soil formed in tropical regions by the decomposition of the underlying rocks.
the portion of the earth's surface consisting of disintegrated rock and humus.
any of the various weathering processes that cause physical disintegration of exposed rock without any change in the chemical composition of the rock.
form from weathered material deposits, which are transported by natural forces to a new site, away from the site of origin.
is a common iron oxide with the formula Fe2O3 and is widespread in rocks and soils.
any of a group of hydrous aluminum silicate minerals, as kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, that constitute the major portion of most clays.
a form of chemical weathering that affects jointed bedrock and results in the formation of concentric or spherical layers of highly decayed rock within weathered bedrock that is known as saprolite.
overlying materials are removed, which causes underlying rocks to expand and fracture parallel to the surface.
any of the series of distinctive layers found in a vertical cross section of any well-developed soil.
the peeling away of sheets of rock millimeters to meters in thickness from a rock's surface due a range of physical and chemical processes during exhumation and weathering .
The weathering process caused by cycles of freezing and thawing of water in surface pores, cracks, and other openings.
is a form of physical weathering that involves the repeated freezing and thawing of water in areas with extremely cold weather.
s an upwards swelling of soil during freezing conditions caused by an increasing presence of ice as it grows towards the surface.
the various mechanical and chemical processes that cause exposed rock to decompose.
an amorphous hydrated ferric oxide, varying in color from dark brown to yellow, used as an ore of iron.
are surface-parallel fracture systems in rock, and often leading to erosion of concentric slabs.
soil formed by rock decay and left as a residue after the leaching out of the more soluble products.
a rich, friable soil containing a relatively equal mixture of sand and silt and a somewhat smaller proportion of clay.