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Understanding Music Chapter 1: The Fundamentals of Music

Across
smaller sub-sections of a melody
notes that are not normally found in a given key
the distance in pitch between any two notes
the low, medium, and high sections of an instrument or vocal range
an electronic device that displays a visual representation of the different types of sound waves
the number of pitches, expressed as an intervallic distance
a disorganized sound with no observable pitch
the lowest pitch in the harmonic series
a person who works in the area of acoustic technology
the instruments comprising a musical group (including the human voice)
(adjective) term used to describe intervals and chords that tend to sound sweet and pleasing to our ears; consonance (noun), as opposed to dissonance, is stable and needs no resolution.
a melody with wide leaps and rapid changes in direction
the process whereby musicians create music spontaneously using the elements of music as building blocks
the distance between two musical pitches where the higher pitch vibrates exactly twice as many times per second as the lower
the process whereby a musician notates musical ideas using a system of symbols or using some other form of recording
the simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches; like intervals, chords can be consonant or dissonant
a melody that moves mostly by step, in a smooth manner
the variation in the volume of musical sound (the amplitude of the sound waves)
Down
the way in which the beats are grouped together in a piece
(adjective) intervals and chords that tend to sound harsh to our ears; dissonance (noun) is often used to create tension and instability, and the interplay between dissonance and consonance provides a sense of harmonic and melodic motion in music
See Instrumentation
a tone that is composed of an organized sound wave
instruments traditionally made of brass or another metal (and thus often producing a “bright” or “brassy” tone) whose sound is generated by blowing into a mouthpiece that is attached to a coiled tube
see measure
any simultaneous combination of tones and the rules governing those combinations (the way a melody is accompanied is also another way to define harmony)
musical pitches which move up or down by successive half-steps
the unit of frequency defined as one cycle per second and named after Heinrich Hertz (1957-1894) in 1960
a series of chords
the basic unit of time in music
the set of pitches on which a composition is based
musical texture comprised of one melodic line; a melodic line may be sung by one person or 100 people
sound and silence organized in time
the process of raising or lowering different frequencies of sound, either in a recording, or within a tone (overtones)
a person who studies the theory and science of acoustics
the structure of the phrases and sections within a musical composition (Does it repeat?)
a succession of single tones in musical compositions