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Chapter 2: Biological Molecules

polymers whose sub-units are monosaccharides
a large molecule made from many similar repeating sub-units joined together in a chain
consist of a single sugar molecule and dissolve in water easily
molecules of this substance clump together to form granules, which are visible in liver cells and muscle cells, where they form an energy reserve
all have a central carbon atom which is bonded to an amine group and a carboxylic acid group
formed by two monosaccharides joined together
always contain carbon and hydrogen
the process which joins two monosaccharides by the removal of a water molecule
the process which breaks down disaccharides and saccharides by the addition of a water molecule
a mixture of two substances- amylose and amylopectin
the sub-units of polymers
a C-O-C link between two monosaccharide molecules, formed by a condensation reaction
the most abundant organic molecule on the planet, due to its presence in plant cell walls and its slow rate of breakdown in nature
proteins whose molecules curl up into a ball shape and are soluble in water
a lipid molecule consisting of glycerol and three fatty acid groups
A relatively weak bond formed by the attraction between a group with a small positive charge on a hydrogen atom and another group carrying a small negative charge
‘giant molecule’, includes polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids
a lipid molecule consisting of two hydrophobic fatty acid tails and a hydrophilic head containing a phosphate group
proteins that are insoluble in water and most have structural roles
organic molecules which are insoluble in water fall under this category, the most common examples are fats and oils