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7.1 Animal Science Vocab A

The observed character of an individual without reference to its genetic nature. Individuals of the same phenotype look alike but may not breed alike.
One strand of a doubled chromosome seen in the prophase and metaphase of mitosis.
A microscopic, dark-staining body, visible in the nucleus of the cell at the time of nuclear division, which carries the genes, arranged in linear order. Its number in any species is usually constant, and it serves as the bridge of inheritance.
The central portion of the cell protoplast surrounded by a very thin membrane. It consists of nucleoplasm and includes within itself variously arranged chromatin, nuclear sap, and nutritive substances. It is of crucial significance in metabolism, growth, reproduction, and the transmission of the determiners of heredity characters.
The phase in mitosis when chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles. In meiosis, the paired chromosomes move apart.
The alternative forms of genes having the same place in homologous chromosomes, which influence the development of alternative traits or characters.
Genetic transmission of traits from parents to offspring.
The phase of cell division between anaphase and the complete separation of the two daughter cells; includes the formation of the nuclear membrane and the return of the chromosomes to long, threadlike and indistinguishable structure.
Having one genome comprising two sets of chromosomes. Somatic tissues of higher plants and animals are ordinarily diploid in chromosome constitution in contrast with the haploid (monoploid) gametes.
The period in the life of a cell between mitotic divisions.
The simplest unit of inheritance. Physically, each gene is apparently a nucleic acid with a unique structure. It influences certain traits.
The stage of cell division in which the chromosomes are arranged in an equatorial plate or plane. It precedes the anaphase stage.
The science that deals with the laws and processes of inheritance in plants and animals.
A variant, differing genetically and often visibly from its parent or parents and arising rather suddenly or abruptly.
In genetics, this is half the number of chromosomes that are usually present in the nucleus; occurs during reduction division.
The first phase of cell division wherein many of the preparatory steps takes place, such as shortening and thickening of the chromosomes, division of the centromeres, disappearance of the nuclear membrane, and formation of the spindle.
Cell division early in the reproductive process, and in the formation of sperm and ova in the testes and ovaries. Each pair of chromosomes in the cell being divided separates, and one member of each pair goes to each of the two new cells formed.
Cell division involving the formation of chromosomes, spindle fibers, and the division of chromosomes by a process if longitudinal splitting. Each of the resulting daughter cells thus has a full set of chromosomes as distinguished from reduction division or meiosis, in which the daughter cells have half the somatic number.